Haplogroups

Populationsgenetik är vetenskapsgrenen där man studerar människans manliga (Y-DNA) och kvinnliga (mtDNA) för att kunna dra slutsatser om hur människan har ”vandrat” på jorden i forntiden.

Haplogrupper med manligt Y-DNA kategoriseras från A – X
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup
http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/106021/human_history_and_the_y_factor/
http://forwhattheywereweare.blogspot.se/

Grupper utan mutation M168

Haplogrupper i Afrika
http://ethiohelix.blogspot.se/2009/11/y-dna-variation-maps-in-east-africa.html

Grupper med mutation M168
The deepest mutation on the Y chromosome tree in non-African populations is called M168. It is found in many African and all non- African Y-chromosomes. This indicates that the M168 mutation must be very old, since it must have arisen in the common ancestor of some African and all non-African populations. Molecular genetic estimates suggest it is around 40,000 years old. This indicates that all non- African Y-chromosomes are descended from an ancestor who lived in an African population, which expanded out of Africa within the last 40,000 years.

(mutation M168 occurred ~50,000 BP)

  • Haplogroup C (M130) (Oceania, North/Central/East Asia, North America and significant presence in India)
  • Haplogroup F (M89) Oceania, Europe, Asia, North- and South- America
  • YAP+ haplogroups

http://forwhattheywereweare.blogspot.se/2011/01/some-new-insights-in-phylogeny-of-y-dna.html

Groups with mutation M89
Mutation M89 is a mutation that occurred on an M168-bearing Y- chromosome. M89 chromosomes are found in east African populations, and also in most Asian, European and Native American populations. The age and geographic distribution of chromosomes carrying M89 suggests that it arose in a north-east African population that was involved in a major expansion event out of Africa and into Eurasia between 45,000 and 30,000 years ago.

The fact that M89 is so common in non-African populations suggests that the initial group that left Africa was composed of a very small group of individuals, and from this group all the major non-African populations (except perhaps Australians) derive.

 

(mutation M89 occurred ~45,000 bp)

  • Haplogroup F (P14, M213) (southern India, Sri Lanka, China, Korea)
  • Haplogroup G (M201) (present among many ethnic groups in Eurasia, usually at low frequency; most common in the Caucasus, the Iranian plateau, and Anatolia; in Europe mainly in Greece, Italy, Iberia, the Tyrol, Bohemia; extremely rare in Northern Europe)
  • Haplogroup H (M69) (India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan, Iran, Central Asia, and Arabia)

Groups with mutations L15 & L16

Groups with mutation M9

(mutation M9 occurred ~40,000 bp)

  • Haplogroup K
    • Haplogroup LT (L298/P326)
      • Haplogroup L (M11, M20, M22, M61, M185, M295) (South Asia, Central Asia, Southwestern Asia, the Mediterranean)
      • Haplogroup T (M70, M184/USP9Y+3178, M193, M272) (North Africa, Horn of Africa, Southwest Asia, the Mediterranean, South Asia); formerly known as Haplogroup K2
    • Haplogroup K(xLT) (rs2033003/M526)

Groups with mutation M526

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
X

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