Genetik

Antal generationer av Homo Sapiens
Människor har vanligtvis förökat sig i 20 år åldern. Det innebär att det i snitt går 5 generationer på ett århundrade och ungefär 50 generationer på 1000 år. Människan har existerat i cirka 200 000 år, vilket innebär att det som mest har funnits 10 000 generationer i människans historia. Skulle det vara så som gamla skrifter antyder, att människor i förhistorien levde upp till eller mer än 1000 år, så kanske det bara har funnits 700 generationer av Homo Sapiens på jorden.

Morfogenes – början till liv
Matematikern Alan Turing lade grunden till den matematik som beskriver cellers utveckling.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morphogenesis

Genetik – populationsgenetik
Denna forskningsgren är ung och är ännu i sin linda. Populationsgenetik, den gren där man tittar på arvsanlag i befolkningsgrupper, bygger myckt på hypoteser och är inte kopplad till lingvistik eller antropologi, så därför är slutsatserna baserade på antaganden.
Arvsanlag, haplogrupper finns både som manliga, Y-DNA och kvinnliga, mitokondrie DNA. Genom att studera det manliga Y-DNA hos befolkningsgrupper kan man dra slutsatser om hur befollkningar har flyttat mellan områden i äldre tider.

Populationers genvarianter påverkar intelligens och inlärningsförmågaenligt studie
http://www.friatider.se/ny-genforskning-skakar-om-forskarvarlden-utsatta-grupper-har-samre-forutsattningar-for-utbildning

Svensk DNA databas
Databas där användare lagt in DNA resultat fördelat på län. Ett förvånande resultat visar att norrbottniska samer och skåningar har gemensamma förfäder genom det manliga haplogruppen I.
http://dna.scangen.se/index.php?show=stats&stat=haplo&lang=sv

Stor stude av haplogrupper i norden
http://atlantisinireland.com/DNA/Europeernas_DNA.php

Raser och DNA i världen
Populationsgenetiker har en teori om att männsikan härstammar från Afrika. Troligtvis är denna teori felaktig.

Y-DNA haplogroups of ancient civilizations
Here is a summary of the current genetic knowledge regarding ancient ethnic groups. This is based on Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups only. For the latest Y-DNA haplogroup tree check the ISOGG’s website.
http://isogg.org/tree/index.html

The ancient Egyptians
Based on the modern population of Egypt, and removing the foreign elements, it is reasonable to assume that the ancient Egyptians belonged primarily to haplogroups E1b1b and T. Nowadays about half of the Egyptian paternal lines could be descended from invaders, notably from the Arabic peninsula (hg J1, about 1/3 of the population), but also from Greece, Anatolia and Persia.

The ancient Persians
Iran has a heterogeneous populations when it comes to Y-DNA. Percentages vary greatly between East and West, and from North to South. Ancient Persia was less diverse, but still very mixed by ancient standards. Its ethnic composition prior to the Greek, Arabic and Mongol invasions was probably made of about 40% of haplogroup J (J1 being more predominant in the South and J2 in the North), 25% of hg R1a, 15% of hg F (possibly including G’s), 10% of hg G and 10% of hg H, I, K and L.

The ancient Babylonians
Babylonians and Assyrians belonged mostly to haplogroup J (mostly J2, but with some J1 in southern Mesopotamia) with a minority of E1b1b, G and K. Haplogroup G is more common around the Caucasus.

The ancient Celts
It is now believed that the ancient Celts were by a very large majority R1b people. Many subclades of R1b divide the various geographic groups of Celts. 2500 years ago, British and Irish Celts belonged mostly to the subclade R1b-L21. Celts from Iberia and south-west Gaul were R1b-M167, while the other Gauls, from central France to southern Germany to northern Italy, belonged to R1b-U152. Further subgroups exist for all these clades (see Origins of European haplogroups).

The ancient Germanic people – I1 & R1b
The three main haplogroups associated with Germanic people are I1, I2b1 and R1b-U106. The latter is an old pre-Celtic branch of R1b mostly found around Frisia. These people are thought to have mixed with I1 people to form the ancient Germanic culture. In Scandinavia R1a is also quite common, although its presence could have predated a Germanic expansion from northern Germany, Denmark and southern Sweden.

The ancient Slavs
Present-day Eastern Slavs are descended from the ancient Kurgan culture of the Eurasian steppes. The Scythians were the branch of R1a that remained in the steppes of from whom modern Russians are descended (along with other haplogroups). Slavic Europeans belonged to haplogroup R1a and I2. Southern Slavs have a much higher proportion of I2 (notably in the Croatia).

The ancient Greek & Romanss
Eastern Europeans from the Danubian basin and the Balkans have also inherited a sizeable percentage of haplogroup E (and some G and T) from the expansion Neolithic farmers that started from northern Greece 7,000 years ago (Linear Pottery culture).

The ancient Indians
The Indo-Aryan people who invaded the Indian peninsula from Central Asia and Iran 3,500 years ago belonged mostly to haplogroups R1a, with also some R2 and J2. This is known from the analysis of Y-DNA of the upper castes of Indian society (the Brahmins and the Kshatriyas), thought to be descended from the Indo-Aryans with minimal admixture on the paternal side. The native Dravidians belonged to the indigenous South Asian haplogroups F, H and L.
http://aryan-myth-and-metahistory.blogspot.se/2011/12/spread-of-aryan-haplogroups.html

The ancient Chinese
Haplogroup O is associated with the Han ethnicity, as well as most of the people of East Asia and Polynesia. Nowadays O2a is the most common in northern China, and O1a in southern China.
http://www.mpg.de/6842535/dna-Tianyuan-cave

The ancient Japanese
Modern Japanese people are composed of two ancient ethnicities : the Yayoi people, who migrated from the Korean peninsula about 2,300 years ago, bringing with them agriculture; and the Jomon people, the hunter-gathers who had lived on the archipelago for millennia before that. The Yayoi were hg O people, like the Chinese and Koreans. The Jomon belonged mostly to the rare haplogroup D (also found in Tibet and in the Andamans, some of the most isolated places on Earth). For more information see The Origin of Japanese people.
http://www.friatider.se/kallt-klimat-ger-hog-iq

The ancient Americans
Be them nomadic tribes from North America, Aztecs, Mayas, Quechuas or cannibals from Amazonia, almost all native Americans belonged to haplogroup Q1a3a, but a minority of hg C existed in North America.
http://www.dn.se/nyheter/vetenskap/indianerna-kommer-fran-europa/
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6157/409.full
http://www.friatider.se/europeer-kan-ha-varit-forst-i-amerika
http://www.dn.se/nyheter/vetenskap/grottfynd-kastar-ljus-over-amerikaners-harkomst/

Romer
Romernas förfädrer kommer troligtvis från Indien för 900år sedan, enligt studier av 13 folkgrupper av romer i Europa.
http://www.friatider.se/ny-forksning-visar-att-romer-harstammar-fran-lagkastiga-indier

Read more
http://www.eupedia.com/forum/showthread.php?25163-Y-DNA-haplogroups-of-ancient-civilizations

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